Bots, P.W.G.: Design in socio-technical system development: Three angles in a common framework, pp. 382-396. In: Journal of Design Research 5, No. 3 (2007). [s.l.]: Inderscience, 2007. ISSN: 1569-1551.
Large-scale socio-technical systems, such as infrastructures for transport, energy and telecommunication, are not designed and then constructed according to plan. Rather, they develop over a long period of time as a result of countless changes. Nonetheless, most of these changes have been produced by design. Three types of designs – system design, decision process design, and institutional design – are identified as pertinent to large-scale socio-technical systems, and characterised by applying a generic conceptual framework to a fictitious case. This characterisation provides some insights into the variety of design problems that must be addressed in the context of socio-technical system development.