Li, H., M.C.J. Bliemer, and P.H.L. Bovy: Network reliability-based optimal toll design, 1-13. In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, Fall (2008).
Optimal toll design from a network reliability point of view is addressed in this paper. Improving network reliability is proposed as a policy objective of road pricing. A reliability-based optimal toll design model, where on the upper level network performance including travel time reliability is optimized, while on the lower level a dynamic user-equilibrium is achieved, is presented. Road authorities aim to optimize network travel time reliability by setting tolls in a network design problem. Travelers are influenced by these tolls and make route and trip decisions by considering travel times and tolls. Network performance reliability is analyzed for a degradable network with elastic and fluctuated travel demand, which integrates reliability and uncertainty, dynamic network equilibrium models, and Monte Carlo methods. The proposed model is applied to a small hypothesized network for which optimal tolls are derived. The network travel time reliability is indeed improved after implementing optimal tolling system. Trips may have a somewhat higher, but more reliable, travel time.