De Haan, J.; J.L.M. Vrancken and Z. Lukszo: Why is intelligent technology alone not an intelligent solution?, pp. 970-978. In: Futures, Volume 43, Issue 9 (November 2011). [s.l.]: Elsevier Science, 2011. ISSN: 0016-3287.
This article investigates how intelligence can contribute to the flexibility of infrastructures. Intelligent solutions, here, are ways to optimise the capacity, efficiency, safety, sustainability, etc. of an infrastructure system, typically by means of ICT-based information processing. For this, three cases are presented of implementations of intelligent solutions. Viewing the infrastructure as part of a constellation, serving to fulfil a societal need, the problems encountered in these cases are found to be of a similar nature. It is found that intelligent technology in itself is not enough for an intelligent solution, the users and operators need to be involved in a learning process, and the institutions will need to be changed as well. Consequently, the design should not focus on the intelligent infrastructure alone, not only on the end goal, but rather the transition phase itself should be designed carefully, with much attention for intermediate and hybrid stages where sometimes the flexibility gained from the intelligent solution can already be put to use.